Periodontal diseasePeriodontal disease
Periodontics is a dental specialty dedicated to the health of gums and the surrounding tissues.
The periodontium refers to the structures that support the teeth, that being the periodontal ligament bone and gums. Healthy Gums that surround the teeth allow the mouth to do is function. Completely healthy gums are characterized by being coral pink in color, covers completely the root of the tooth, and does not bleed with brushing .
Inflamed gums or painful gums can indicate the presence of gum disease such as gingivitis or periodontitis. Both are caused by the accumulation of bacterial plaque in the area where the gum meets the tooth.
Bacterial plaque is formed when bacteria accumulates due to a poor brushing technique. With time, bacteria and saliva form deposits or calculus. Bacterial plaque is the principal cause of the gum disease. Other factors include tobacco, genes, heart disease, arthritis, Diabetes, Stress, Certain medicines, Poor nutrition, And obesity.
Gingivitis is the inflammation and bleeding of the gums where the bone has not yet been affected.
Periodontitis occurs when there is a loss of bone and gum that supports the teeth . It occurs in 50 % of the population older then 30 years old. If it is not treated in time, it could lead to the loss of teeth.
COMMON SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE
- Teeth mobility: when there is a great deal of bone loss, teeth begin to move and can be lost.
- Inflamed and red gingiva: It is one of the most frequent signs of periodontal disease.
- Bleeding gums: Inflamed gums bleed. Food, toothbrush or dental floss touching the gum tissue may activate the bleeding of gums.
- Sensitive teeth: periodontal disease may expose the roots causing sensitive teeth.
- Swelling of the gums: The areas of the gums with the greatest amount of periodontal disease can become infected in a severe way leading to the development of buccalswellings in the mouth. The swellings of the gums always occur in the molar area. These swellings are always very painful and require urgent treatment
- Painful gums. In general,periodontal disease does not hurt but there is one type of periodontal disease which is called necrotizing gingivitis which is extremely painful and causes abundant bleeding of the gums.
- Bad taste in the mouth or bad breath. Bad breath can result from eating certain types of food, from the teeth or from the gums, but is normally associated with the bacteria that live in the back part of the tongue.
- Gum recession causing teeth to look larger. It occurs due to the loss of bone that supports the gum and normally is associated with an increase in dental sensitivity.
- Opening up spaces between the teeth or loss of gum tissue between teeth. This normally occurs in the upper front teeth leading to the appearance of unaesthetic Spaces That appears as black triangles..
- Black or green stains where the tooth meets the gums. It is plaque or calculus that always accumulates in this area.
In order to determine the diagnosis of periodontal disease it is necessary to perform an exhaustive evaluation of Each case. The American Academy of periodontics recommends exploring a series of parameters in order to establish a precise diagnosis.
Dr Sanz is the dental clinic’s specialist in periodontics and as an active member of the American Academy of a Periodontics. He treats his periodontal patients by following the guidelines set forth by this association. In order to accurately evaluate a patients periodontal status, it is necessary to look at the teeth, the quantity and quality of bacterial plaque, the gums, the bite, bone structure and risk factors. For that it is necessary to have:
- Radiographs: radiographic series
- Periodontogram or diagnostic probing
- Plaque and gingival index
Periodontal treatment has various phases:
- Oral hygiene instruction in which the patient learns to correctly brush and care for their teeth. Using a correct brushing technique, patients are able to control the accumulation of bacterial plaque.
- Scaling and root planing by quadrants. It consists of the mechanical removal of bacterial plaque and deposits. The objective of quadrant root planing and scaling is to reduce gingival inflammation. It is done in various sessions.
- Periodontal surgery or gum surgery. Its objective is to reduce the amount of bacterial plaque, to improve hygiene and to regenerate supporting tissues using biomaterials.